Screening for diabetic retinopathy prevents blindness and visual impairment and offers a good cost-benefit ratio . Fundus photography is a more sensitive screening tool than ophthalmoscopy . The screening programme can be the responsibility of the primary care physician until the patient develops more than mild changes or the sight worsens. Thereafter decisions about the frequency and methods of screening are the responsibility of an ophthalmologist, as are all decisions regarding treatment needs (based on fundus photographs or clinical examination). The maintenance of optimal glycaemic control and risk factor management are the responsibility of the patient and those caring for him/her. The treatment of all changes within the eye belongs to an ophthalmologist. Visual rehabilitation should be started as soon as sight-threatening changes are noted in the fundus of a diabetic patient.