Lumbar spinal stenosis
The characteristic symptom of lumbar spinal stenosis is neurogenic claudication (spinal claudication). When walking, the patient experiences pain (which usually starts in the back and radiates to the legs), numbness or weakness. If the symptoms are tolerable and the patient’s functional capacity is intact, the first-line management options are conservative treatment, analgesia and physiotherapy. Indications for surgery include unbearable pain not relieved with conservative treatment, gradually shortening walking distance (< 200–300 m), progressing neurological deficit or cauda equina syndrome.