Unnecessary, routinely performed urinalyses should be avoided. There is no need to screen for proteinuria at health check-ups, as it is unlikely that a symptomless, remediable disease will be revealed. Determination of microalbuminuria is advisable in certain risk groups, e.g. in patients with diabetes. Mild, harmless orthostatic proteinuria can be identified without further investigations. The magnitude of proteinuria is quantified (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, overnight collection for urinary albumin and/or 24-hour urinary protein excretion). If the excretion of protein exceeds 1 g/24 h, further investigations and follow-up are usually indicated. It should be remembered that absence of proteinuria does not exclude severe renal disease. If proteinuria is detected in a pregnant woman, the possibility of pre-eclampsia should always be considered (see ).